Hendraburnick ‘Quoit’ – the most decorated stone in southern Britain?

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Last year (2016) I was asked by Dr Andy Jones from Cornwall Archaeological Unit to record and study the surface of Hendraburnick Quoit on Bodmin Moor in Cornwall. The work, funded by Cornwall Archaeological Society, involved detailed 3D recording of the surface of the two stones that comprise the monument (which isn’t actually a quoit, more a ‘propped stone’). It was a complex task for which I used photogrammetry as the 3D scanning method. It involved careful planning and then taking many hundreds of high resolution photographs to guarantee coverage at an even resolution across all sides of both stones to enable careful study with millimetric levels of accuracy.

Our research was covered in the Telegraph who used the curioisty-grabbing headline “Ancient stone monuments may have been used for mysterious moonlit ceremonies, say archaeologists“. A full account of the project and our interpretation of the site can be found in the article Hendraburnick ‘Quoit’: recording and dating rock art in the west of Britain in Time & Mind – the “Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture”.

Analysis

After processing the 3D data I began the lengthy task of analysing the surfaces in great detail. Each potential feature was subjected to four checks using alternative methods, including virtual RTI and cross sections. I burnt a lot of midnight oil ensuring finding ‘cup marks’ and tracing the grooved lines that connect many of them together. I found 105 cup marks and 47 possible grooved lines connected or radiating from them, following the slope of the stone. This suggests that the lines were made in-situ rather than before the stone was moved in prehistory to its current location. This makes Hendraburnick Quoit the most known decorated or deliberately marked stone in southern Britain – possibly topping even Stonehenge in number of human-made features (152) on its surface.

The result was this plan:

Plan of cup marks on Hendraburnick propped stone
Cup marks on Hendraburnick propped stone

A very reduced resolution model of Hendraburnick can be viewed on Sketchfab, to aid understanding of the monument.

Carwynnen Quoit

Earlier this year I was commissioned by Sustrust to digitally reconstruct the then-collapsed Carwynnen Quoit, a neolithic dolmen, using existing 3D laser scan data. This would be used to inform the physical reconstruction of the monument. I was also asked to investigate and report on a number of stones adjacent to the quoit which were thought to have been worked or decorated in antiquity.

The ‘rock art’ panels (a mixture of natural and hand-made lines, not necessarily as part of a single deliberate piece) were recorded in 3D using Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry.

On summer solstice 2014, the capstone was lowered into place by crane in front of hundreds of spectators, marking an end to a four year project.

The graphical output that I produced was used on leaflets and publicity, as well as extracts from my report on the potential rock art. Below are some of those images, used with permission.

Carwynnen Quoit reconstructed from laser scan data, placed upon the excavation plan

Carwynnen Quoit reconstructed from laser scan data, placed upon the excavation plan

One of the images created for the analysis of the 'Coffin Stone' close to Carwynnen Quoit

One of the images created for the analysis of the 'Coffin Stone' close to Carwynnen Quoit

Visit the Giant’s Quoit website to find out more about the project.